The Department of Chemistry and associated research centres have established an enviable suite of facilities to conduct research and teaching, allowing staff and students to access world-class facilities for their work and study. This includes the Resources and Chemistry Precinct.
The following facilities are available:
- Micromass Autospec Ultima-Q GC-HRMS system
- HP5973 GC-MSD with purge and trap, thermal desorption, MSSV and pyrolysis facilities
- HP5973 GC-MSD for high resolution GC-MS
- HP5973/SAI TOF GC-MS for high resolution GC-MS
- Agilent 5975 GC-MSD with Gerstel automated SPME/SBSE, thermal desorption, CIS and headspace inlets and odour detection facilities
- Agilent 5973 GC-MSD with Gerstel automated SPME facility
- Agilent 5975 GC-MSD with EI/CI for high resolution GC-MS
- Micromass Isoprime GC-isotope ratio mass spectrometry system with compound specific isotope capability for both carbon and hydrogen.
- Micromass Isoprime EA-isotope ratio mass spectrometry system with compound specific isotope capability for both carbon and hydrogen.
- NU HORIZON-Agilent 7890 GC-isotope ratio mass spectrometry system with compound specific isotope capability for both carbon and hydrogen.
- Micromass Quattro Ultima Triple Quad LC-MS System.
- Micromass TOF LC-MS System.
- Thermo Scientific LTQ XL Orbitrap LC-MS facility.
- HP CE-UVD Capillary electrophoresis
- Agilent 1100 and 1200 Series HPLC
- Dionex ICS-90 Ion Chromatography System
- Mitsubishi AOX – Dionex ICS 3000 Ion Chromatography System
The following facilities are available in our teaching laboratories:
- Agilent 7890A GC-FID with a 7673 Autosampler
- Agilent 1200 HPLC with a diode array detector
- Multiple HP5890 GC-FID instruments
The following facilities are available within the Department:
- Bruker Avance III 400 MHz spectrometer
- a BBFO Plus multi–nuclei probe
- low and high temperature capability
- Currently available for routine analysis of 1H, 13C, 31P and 11B nuclei. Numerous nuclei capability including 19F and 15N.
The Scanning Probe Microscopy Facility consists of instruments that provide very high resolution, three dimensional surface topography on an increasing variety of samples and are powerful tools for surface examination.
The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) uses the sense of touch and measures the topography by mechanically moving a sharp probe across the sample to “feel” the contours of the surface in a manner similar to a phonograph stylus tracing the grooves of a record. Moreover, it can operate under liquids, including the corrosive solutions frequently encountered in industry.
The instruments available are as follows:
Digital Instruments NanoScope IIIE
- Contact mode operation in air
- Atomic resolution
- Flowing liquid cell, for non-corrosive fluids at room temperature
- Simultaneous sample viewing with optical microscope
Digital Instruments Dimension 3000
- Contact mode and “tapping mode” operation (for viewing soft samples and weakly adsorbed species)
- In situ liquid cell under ambient conditions
- Phase imaging, for the study of composite materials, magnetic alloys, etc
- Large sample imaging capability
Molecular Imaging PicoAFM – atomic force microscope
- Sample imaging in controlled gaseous environment (for air sensitive samples, etc)
- In situ imaging of samples in corrosive fluids (high and low pH) and at high temperature (up to ca 100oC)
- Operation in contact and intermittent contact modes
Molecular Imaging PicoSTM – scanning tunnelling microscope
- Sample imaging in controlled gaseous environment (for air sensitive samples, etc), with glove box for sample transfer
- In situ imaging of samples in corrosive fluids
Nikon Optiphot2 optical microscope
- Double beam interferometry with Mirau objectives
- Polarising and tilting stages
- In situ flowing liquid cells
- High resolution digital camera and image processing
The thermal characterisation facilities, located in the Department of Chemistry, have provided a thermal analysis service to industry for well over two decades. The Laboratory possesses a range of thermal analysis equipment capable of analysing materials which range from cements to polymers and from minerals to phase change materials over temperatures ranging from -50 to 1500 °C.
- Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) measures mass change as a function of temperature.
- Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) measures thermal events occurring during a controlled heating program.
- Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) enables thermal events and heat capacity changes to be measured sensitively and quantitatively.
- Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) is a combination of TGA and either DTA or DSC.
- Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) enables gases and vapours produced during thermal analysis to be analysed by infra-red analysis or mass spectrometry.
The range of materials which can be characterised by thermal analysis is large and continues to increase. Consequently we have provided a service to a number of significant Western Australian industries including producers of cement, alumina, pigments, ceramics, nickel, gold, pharmaceuticals, polymers and heat storage liquids as well as to consultant engineers and chemists.
Some Applications of Thermal Analysis
- Activated Carbon used in the C.I.P. process of gold extraction becomes fouled and needs regenerating. TG analysis displays mass loss v temperature. The presence and amount of adsorbed foulants may be deduced and the optimum regeneration temperature determined
- Calcium Sulphate Hydrates in cement may be estimated. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) and CaSO4.½H2O decompose when heated to just over 100 °C. DSC analysis of this endothermic decomposition is used to estimate the proportions of the two hydrates.
- Composition of Rubber may be determined using TGA. By controlling the atmosphere used during a TGA run the polymer, carbon black and filler composition can be quickly determined.
- Quantitative Analysis of Minerals such as gibbsite, clays, carbonates, sulphide, etc. is possible by determining the mass loss over the mineral’s characteristic decomposition temperature range.
- Gases Evolved during TG analysis may be analysed by infra-red or mass spectrometry (a technique known as TG-EGA). This can be used to help identify a material or the thermal stability of a compound.
- The Cure of Thermosetting Resins may be investigated using DSC analysis. Use can be made of the exothermic curing reaction or the glass transition temperature to provide useful information.
These are merely a sample of thermal analysis applications developed. Any material which undergoes a change of mass, energy or appearance during a controlled thermal program can, theoretically, be analysed by thermal methods.
The following facilities are available in the area of vibrational and electronic spectroscopy:
- Bruker IFS66 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer
- Harrick diffuse reflectance
- MTEC photoacoustic coupler
- Specac 6-bounce ATR (Ge, ZnSe, Si crystals)
- Harrick variable angle ATR (Seagull)
- Polarized grazing angle reflectance
- Dipper cell (ZnSe)
- DiaCell diamond anvil
- Bruker A390 microscope (transmission and reflectance modes)
- Bruker RFS100 FT-Raman spectrometer (1064 nm excitation)
- Dilor Labram 1B dispersive Raman spectrometer (514, 633 & 785 nm excitation).
- Hitachi F-7000 fluorescence spectrophotometer
- Hewlett Packard 8452A diode array UV/vis spectrophotometer
- Cary Eclipse Luminescence Spectrophotometer
The following facilities are available in our teaching laboratories:
- Perkin Elmer Spectrum 100 FT-IR with Zn/Se Single Bounce Universal ATR accessory
- Perkin Elmer Lambda 35 UV/VIS Spectrometer
- Jasco FP-6200 Spectrofluorometer (220 nm – 730 nm)
Other Thermal Analysis Sites
The following facilities are also available within the Department
- Perkin Elmer Series II 2400 CHN Analyser
- Johnson Matthey Magnetic Susceptibility Balance – MARK I
- Three Varian SpectAA 50 Atomic Absorption Spectrometers
- Rudolph Research Analytical – Autopol 1 – Automatic Polarimeter
- Malvern Instruments Zetasizer Nano-ZS
- Bomb calorimeter
The Resources and Chemistry Precinct houses Curtin’s Department of Chemistry in state-of-the-art chemistry laboratory facilities.
The precinct provides a world class environment in which a wide-ranging array of research activities ranging from fundamental ‘blue sky’ investigations to those directly related to the biotechnology, chemical, minerals, energy and resources sectors. Curtin’s Department of Chemistry supports research activities in the following areas:
- Analytical Chemistry (including Forensic Chemistry, Organic Geochemistry and Water Chemistry)
- Chemical Sensors
- Chemical Synthesis
- Chemistry Education
- Computational Chemistry
- Corrosion Science
- Medicinal and Biological Chemistry
- Minerals and Materials Chemistry
- Spectroscopy and Laser Chemistry
The Chemistry Department also hosts the:
- Curtin Water Quality Research Centre
- Nanochemistry Research Institute
- WA Corrosion Research Group
- WA Organic Isotope Geochemistry Centre
- floor-to-ceiling glass internal walls and full-length, line-of-sight corridors to enhance visibility and promote interaction
- ‘future proofing’ for potential Occupational Health and Safety revisions
- expansive open-plan laboratories, with excellent visibility across laboratory space and adjacent office zones
- uniform layout for exits, fire extinguishers, services, emergency showers and emergency stop buttons. Wash stations at each laboratory entrance to allow decontamination when moving between office and laboratory zones
- ease of rearranging and optimising research groupings, equipment and facilities
- provision for ‘working quantities’ only of chemicals, with dedicated areas for chemical storage. Teaching laboratories accommodate microscale chemical manipulation (to improve safety, and minimise chemical costs and waste disposal volumes)
- Physical Containment Level 2 (PC2) requirements in all laboratories, air-handling capability, chemical storage areas, access patterns and management structures
- acid-resistant modular bench tops, with mobile under-bench storage
- power and data management, with blank access plates and wiring for future expansion
- oil- and moisture-free compressed air, water aspirator grade vacuum, Milli-Q grade deionised water
- steam (to one laboratory on each floor)
- high-grade nitrogen and argon
- fumehoods that contain a full set of laboratory services (and doubled for students)
- specialised overhead directional fume extraction for weighing balances
- large wash-up sink with fume extraction around the lip.
- chemical storage, including cabinets within dedicated dangerous goods stores. These can be grouped by hazardous goods category, with lockable cabinets assigned to individual research groups. Dedicated weighing facilities in each store allow usable quantities to be measured out, without moving bulk chemicals to the laboratories
- Type-3 dangerous goods (flammable liquids) storage. These fire-rated facilities contain anti-static floors (a copper sheet and earthing unit beneath a wall-to-wall conducting epoxy coating) and are fully bunded. Decanting benches with scavenging ductwork minimise the risk of major spills, and avoid the need to shift large volumes in laboratories
- dangerous-goods handling rooms, purpose-built for chemical manipulations with significant safety requirements, or the purification of large amounts of solvents. Each room has three booths with a grated floor to contain large spills, and is equipped with laboratory services, chilled water and steam. Each booth has an explosion-proof polycarbonate door, and a pressure-release hatch angled towards the ceiling
- specially gas manifold cabinets contain manifolds for up to three pairs of cylinders, piped into localised laboratories. A s one cylinder empties, the manifold automatically switches to the second, and alerts the BMS for replacement
- large fridge/freezer rooms for storing heat-sensitive chemicals and samples. These rooms have moisture-proof power outlets, and so can be equipped with benches for cold experimentation. One floor has an oversized fridge/freezer room connected to back-up power for additional sample preservation.
- a ground-floor room is designed for segregation and storage of all classes of chemical waste
- the various classes of waste are contracted out for professional disposal
- gases extracted from acid-digestion fumehoods are scrubbed to remove acidic compounds, and released through stacks six metres above the roof’s apex – twice the legal height requirement. Modelling studies confirm that dispersion profiles are excellent under a range of weather conditions. Periodic air monitoring for a range of chemicals, including volatile organic gases, particulates and noise is in place in the immediate vicinity and across the University campus. Data is compared with baseline values to ensure environmental impact is minimised and within acceptable levels.